Lahaul & Spiti district is a district of the Himachal Pradesh state with its administrative headquarters located at Keylong town. Both the Lahaul & Spiti has different history. Long ago the place of Lahaul was under the rulers of Ladakh and Kulu. After sometime the disintegration of Ladakh kingdom in the second half of the seventeenth century led the Lahaul passed into the hands of the Kulu chief. In the year 1840, Lahaul along with Kulu became a part of the Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s Empire and ruled it until the British came to this place in 1846. Lahaul was a part of the Kulu sub-division of Kangra district from 1846 to 1940 which at that time was administered by the local jagirdars or thakurs. Moreover, in the same year i.e. 1846 the East India Company took over the possession of the Spiti portion after the cessation of cis-Satluj States as a result of the Anglo-Sikh War. Before that it formed a part of Ladakh, a subsidiary of Jammu & Kashmir. In 1941, both Spiti & Lahaul were combined and emerged as a separate sub-tehsil of the Kullu sub-division with its headquarters situated at Keylong. The district of Lahaul & Spiti came into existence in the year 1960.
Geographically, the district lies at 31°76'N latitude, 76°52'E longitude and 3810 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 1.15% forest area of total geographical area. The altitude of the district is 3810 m. The district encompasses a geographical area of 13,841 sq kms and it is bounded by the Pangi and Churah areas of Chamba district on the west, the valleys of Zanskar and Ladakh across Shingola and Baralacha la on the north. On the other hand it shares its eastern and south eastern boundaries with Spiti and Western Tibet across the Kunzom Pass. During the summer also the climate of the district remains pleasant and quite comfortable. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 686.2 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 3 sub-districts and 521 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 31,564 out of which 16,588 are males and 14,976 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 903 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was -5.00% including -10.05% were males and 1.31% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Buddhist and Hindu with 62.01% and 36.91% of the total population. As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Kinnauri, and Gujarati with 40.88% and 26.53%. The population density in the district is 2 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 91 out of which 37 were males and 54 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 214 out of which 124 were males and 90 were females.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are use for agricultural purposes. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. Potato farming is very common in the district. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the famers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Government provides various schemes for the upliftment of the other occupations like animal husbandry, weaving, etc. But the district is scantily industrialised since it has only a few agro based industries. In the year 2015-2016 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 77,023 lakh at current price in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2015-16 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 63,192 lakh at current price in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2015-2016 the Per Capita Income was in Rs. 1,92,292 at Current Price in the year 2011-2012.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 76.81% including 85.69% are males and 66.84% are females. The district has a literates of 21,845 out of which 12,897 are males and 8,948 are females.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. The place is famous for its mesmerising natural sceneries and Buddhist monasteries. Chandra Taal Lake is one of the significant places of interest of the region. Tabo Monastery situated at a distance of 45 km. from Kaza, Himachal Pradesh is the capital of the Spiti region. This monastery became popular in 1996 when it celebrated its thousandth year of completion. It has a huge and antique collection of Buddhist scriptures, Buddhist statues and Thangkas. Kardang Monastery, located about 8 km. away from Keylong was constructed in the 12th century. This monastery has a large library of Buddhist literature including the main Kangyur and Tangyur scriptures. The valley is fortunate enough to have a large variety of fauna and flora. Therefore, it is a perfect destination for wildlife lovers. The district is also full of adventurous activities likewise To-do-Trails, Skiing, Yak Safari and many more.