The historical evidences of the district has proved that at a time the region was full of different types of tribes living in the region such as Kamar, Kanwar, Dhanwar, Halba, Kharai, Munda, Pardhi, Bahalia, Saur, Saharia, Sonar, Sanwara, Kharwar, Bhujia and Binjhwar. The traditional dressing style is being maintained in the district. The district is famous for its rich cultural history. Once upon a time the region was the capital of ‘South Kosal’ that was occupied by ‘Somavansiya Emperors’ and they made it famous as a centre of learning. The temples of this place with their natural scenic beauty always offers a mental relaxation to its visitors. On the other hand, these temples and the fairs and festivals are an important part of the peoples daily life.
Geographically, the district encompasses a total area of 4,790 sq km. and occupies the ranks 14th in State and 232nd in India on the bases of this size. It lies at 21°11'N latitude, 82°10'E longitude and 318 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 19.80% forest area of total geographical area. It is bounded by Raipur District, Gariyaband District, Baloda Bazar District, Raigarh District of Chhattisgarh state and Bargarh District and Nuapada District of Odisa state. The climate of the district remains extremely hot and humid in the summers. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1111.5 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administrative wise, the district is divided into 5 sub-districts, 6 towns and 1,145 villages. Hindi is the administrative language of the district. The district of Mahasamund came into existence on 6th July, 1998. Its district headquarters is located at Mahasamund, situated at a distance of 55 km from the state capital.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district is home to a total number of 2,56,504 households with a total of 10,32,754 comprising 5,11,967 are males and 5,20,787 are females. The density of population of the district is 216 (persons per sq km.). The sex ratio is pegged at 1017 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 971 (females per 1000 males). As per 2011 census, the percentage of major religions practiced by the people of this region is Hindu with 97.61% of the total population. The population growth rate during the period 2001-2011 was 20.05% of which 20.12% were males and 19.98% were females. According to 2011 census, the percentage of the principal languages of the region are Hindi and Odia with 80.72% and 18.38%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 19,049 out of which 9,784 were males and 9,262 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 6,896 out of which 3,935 were males and 2,960 were females.
Economically, the district is dependent on the agriculture primarily. The district has a great scope for mining due to availability of limestone, neo-granite, dolerite, and quartz. There are also a number of stone cutting factories. The GDDP or Gross District Domestic Product during the period 2006-07 was Rs. 1,79,429 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 1,22,436 lakh at Constant Price during the period 1999-2000. The NDDP, or Net District Domestic Product during the period 2006-07 was Rs. 1,61,544 lakh at Current Price and 1,09,507 lakh at Constant Price during the period 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost during the period 2006-07 was Rs. 17,825 lakh Current Price and Rs. 9,063 lakh at Constant Price during the period 1999-2000.
Education wise, according to 2011 census, the literacy rate of the district is 71.02% including 82.05% are males and 60.25% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 6,37,963 out of which 3,64,089 are males and 2,73,874 are females. The district has several educational institutes including schools, colleges and polytechnics such as Weidner memorial Senior Secondary School CBSE Pattern, Kendriya Vidyalay CBSE Pattern, New Holy Faith School CBSE Pattern, Delhi Public School CBSE Pattern, Maharishi Public School CBSE Pattern, Saraswati Higher Secondary School CG Board, Shishu Sanskar Kendra Higher Secondary School CG Board, Good Shepherd Higher Secondary School CG Board, Shyam Vidya Higher Secondary School CG Board, Mahaprabhu Vallabhcharya Govt. PG College., Mata Karma Govt. PG Girls College., Shantri Bai Arts Science and Commerce College, Jai Hind College, Govt. Polytechnic College, Govt. Vetnary Hospital and Polytechnic College, Govt. Livelihood College, Indian College, Shyam B ED College, Govt. Forest Guard Training Centre, etc.
The district has many famous historical and religious places to visit. These places are Laxman Temple, Gandheshwar Temple, Buddha Vihar, Ram Temple, Museum, Barnawapara Sanctuary. In the year 2018, there were 2,72,688 domestic tourists and 20 foreign tourists who visited the above places. Laxman temple is a brick temple which is known for its fine construction. There is a statue of Sheshnaag on the entrance as an umbrella to Lord Shiva. It is a Panchrath type temple with Vatayan, Chitya Gawaksha, Bharwahakgana, Aja, Kirtimukh and Karna Amalak segments. There is also a museum in the temple. The temple has the Mandap (shelter), Antraal (passage) and Garbha Grih (the main house) inside. Gandheswar Temple is a Shiva temple which is situated on the Mahanadi bank. There are several statuses of Natraj, Shiva, Varah, Garud Narayan, and Mahisasur Mardini and Buddha. Swastik Vihar is a place for mediation and study for Buddhist monks. Sirpur is also situated on the banks of the holy Mahanadi River. In ancient time, it was the capital of South Kosala. It is historically significant from the angles of art, science, religion and spirituality. Sirpur is known for its Buddhist Vihars. Anand Prabhu Kudi Vihar is a Buddhist vihar consisting 14 rooms. It was constructed by Bhikshu Anand Prabhu. He was a follower of Buddha during the period of Mahashivgupt Balarjun. It has stone pillars on either side of the entrance. There is a six feet tall statue of Buddha touching the earth, inside the vihar.