Historically, Korba was once called Gourigar. It was under the control of Nago Singh Gour who was a snake charmer zamindar of the Mourya caste. It was also ruled by Marathas. Haihaya dynasty, the Marathas, Raja Vikramaditya, Banna dynasty, Rani DhanrajKunwar Devi and the British were the prominent rulers who ruled this region. In the 17th century it came under the control of British. It became a part of the Chhattisgarh state in 1998. Korba is also called as the power capital of the Chhattisgarh state. The district comes under the Bilaspur division and most of its locals are tribal including the protected tribe, Korwas (Pahadi Korwa). Korba is full of lush green forest cover, where a sizable number of tribal populations reside. The Adivaisis in the forest areas live in-tandem with the environment and they also preserves their distinctive cultural characteristics and traditional observances.
Geographically, the district encompasses a geographical area of 6,598 sq km. It lies at 22°35' N latitude, 82°75'E longitude and 316 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 51.54% forest area of total geographical area. It is located at the Northern Rocks. Hasdeo River and its tributaries namely Gajechorai, Tan and Ahiran are passes through the district. The climate of the district remains extremely hot and humid almost throughout the summer. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1630.8 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administrative wise, the district is divided into 5 sub-districts, 7 towns and 719 villages. Hindi is its official language. The district of Korba came into existence on 25th May, 1998 in the state of Chhattisgarh. Its district headquarter is located at Korba town, situated at a distance of 224 km. from the state capital.
As per 2011 census the district has a population of 12,06,640 out of which 6,12,915 are males and 5,93,725 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 969 (females per 1000 males) and child ratio of 966 (females per 1000 males). During the period 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 19.25% including 18.98% were males and 19.54% were females. The population density in the district is 183 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the major religion n the district is Hindu with 93.91% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 95.89%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 22,643 out of which 11,512 were males and 11,129 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 6,105 out of which 3,680 were males and 2,425 were females.
Economically, the district is dependent of agriculture primarily. Several coal mines are also available here in the Gevra Area (one of the biggest coal mines of Asia), Kusmunda Area and Dipka Area, all located in Korba Coalfield. The Gevra Area is the Asia’s one of the biggest coal mines. NTPC, CSEB East-West and Balco Aluminium Plant are also available in the district. It is the power hub of Chattisgarh. Power is the main source of revenue here. The GDDP or Gross District Domestic Product during the period 2006-07 was Rs. 8,01,378 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 6,65,790 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. The NDDP, or Net District Domestic Product during the period 2006-07 was Rs. 6,52,424 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 5,40,861 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost during the period 2006-07 was Rs.56,405 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 11,567 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000.
Education wise, according to 2011 census, the literacy rate is 72.37% out of which 82.48% are males and 61.93% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 7,48,759 including 4,33,391 are males and 3,15,368 are females. The district has a number of primary, secondary and higher secondary schools as well as graduation colleges.
The district has several famous historical and religious places to visit. During 2018 there were 1,15,578 domestic tourist and 55 foreign tourist who visited places. These places are Pali Shiva Temple, Afagarh Fort, Chaiturgarh, Kendai Waterfall, and Tumhan Bango. The Pali Shiva temple is situated in Pali town which was built in 12th century AD. The town of Pali gains considerable importance in the Chhattisgarh territory solely due to the presence of the Shiva Temple, considered an august pilgrim site. It was built in the 12th century AD. Tuman is a small village and the first capital for Haihai or Kalchuri Kings in Chattisgarh. It has importance due to ancient sculpture and temples. Several images of Lord Brahma, Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva are founded here. The main temple belongs to Lord Dashavatar. It is located nearby the Jatashankar River. Chaiturgarh is a fort which is situated in north of Pali. It was constructed by Raja Pratwidev I. It is considered as one of the strongest natural fort. It has five ponds including three ponds full of water and the idol of Mahishasur Mardini, or Goddess Durga in her 'Shakti'. The ancient caves are situated on the way to the Korba Railway Station. The statues of Lord Ram, Sita and Lakshman are founded here. There is also a huge Ram-Sita Temple, with some smaller temples to the right of these caves.