Ernakulam is a district of coastal state Kerala with its administrative headquarters located at Kakkanad. The district got its name from the term Erayanarkulam meaning The Abode of Lord Shiva. In the ancient period the district was popularly known as "Rishinagakulam". The political history of South India without the Ernakulam district can never be completed. Earlier many foreigners namely Jews, Syrians, Arabs, Chinese, Dutch, British and Portuguese came to the region through the sea route in order to capture the Kingdom of Cochin. In 1896, the Maharaja of Cochin formed a town council in the Ernakulam district to initiate the local administration. On 1st April, 1958 Ernakulam was emerged as a separate district in the map of Kerala state. At the very beginning the administrative headquarters of the district was located at Ernakulam city but later it was shifted to Kakkanad.
Jayaram Subramaniam, an eminent Indian film actor who has mostly acts in Malayalam films and in Tamil films who was born on 10th December, 1975 at Perumbavoor in the district. The Government of Indian honoured him by the prestigious Padma Shri award in 2011 for his contribution towards the arts.
Geographically, the district lies at 10001'N latitude, 76030'E longitude and 300 m Altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 44.59% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses an area of 3,063 sq km. and it is bounded by Thrissur district on the north, Alappuzha district and Kottayam district on the south, Idukki district on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west. The climate of the district is characterised as tropical monsoon climate. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 4501.8 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 7 taluks namely Paravur, Aluva, Kunnathunad, Muvattupuzha, Kochi, Kanayannur and Kothamangalam. Moreover, the district comprises 56 towns and 61 villages. There are 4 parliamentary and 14 assembly constituencies in the district. The administrative language in the district is Malayalam.
According to 2011 census he district has a population of 32,82,388 including 16,19,557 are males and 16,62,831 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 1027 (females for every 1000 males). In the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 5.69% out of which 5.28% were males and 6.09% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Christian with 45.99% and 38.03% of the total population. The population density in the district is 1,072 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Malayalam with 96.70%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 43,654 out of which 22,240 were males and 21,413 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 29,944 out of which 16,921 were males and 13,023 were females.
The district is one of the richest districts in Kerala. Since it is a coastal region hence both marine and inland fisheries are the chief source of livelihood for most of its population. The economy of the district is dependent on agriculture to some extent. Some of its foremost agricultural products are Tarpioca, Blackpepper, Arecanut, Coconut, Turmeric, Banana and Plantain. The district is famous as the highest producer of Nutmeg and Pineapple within the state. The district is growing fast as a commercial and industrial hub. Its developing tourism also contributes in its economy to a remarkable extent. In the year 2018-19 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 85,91,244 lakh at current price and Rs. 62,69,955 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2018-19 was Rs. 76,24,805 lakh at current price and Rs. 56,63,078 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost during the period 2018-19 was Rs. 2,22,857 at current price and Rs. 1,65,520 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
Ernakulam provides a platform for higher education. The district has two renowned universities namely Sanskrit University and Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT). Some of its reputed educational institutions are Maharajas College, Government Model Engineering College, St. Teresa Women's College, Govt. Law College, St. Albert College and Sacred Heart College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 95.89% including 97.36% are males and 94.46% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 28,55,676 out of which 14,25,723 are males and 14,29,953 are females.
Kuruppasserry Varkey Thomas, an illustrious Indian politician and the member of 16th Lok Sabha from Ernakulam Constituency was born on 10th May, 1946 at Kumbalangi in the district. He is a member of Indian National Congress. Jose Thettayil, a distinguished Indian politician and the former minister for Transport in the Government of Kerala was born on 17th August, 1950 at Angamaly in the Ernakulam district. He is a member of Janata Dal (Secular) political party.
During the year 2018, there were 34,46,889 domestic tourists and 4,88,175 foreign tourists. The district has a great variety of tourist destinations which allures many travellers from different parts of the world. Bastion Bunglow, a beautiful bunglow in the district depicts the Indo-European style of architecture of 1667 AD. Bhoothathankettu is a popular picnic site full of mesmerising natural sceneries with Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary, situated at a distance of 50 km. north east of Ernakulam town. Bolghatty Palace, constructed by the Dutch in 1744 is encompasses a small golf course and several vantage points for lovely views of the harbour and the sea. Cherai Beach, located at a distance of 25 kms from Kochi has an extraordinary combination of sea and backwaters with the abundant green coconut palms. Marine Drive is one of the most beautiful places for the regular hangout of the locals. Pallippuram fort, built by the Portuguese in 1503 is one of the oldest existing monuments based on European architecture. Some other notable centres of attraction in the district are St.Francis Church, Thrikkakara Temple, Willingdon Island, Santa Cruz Bascillica, Parikshit Thampuran Museum, Kanjiramattom Mosque, Kallil Temple, Hill Palace, etc.