Historically, the Tawang district was the part of Tibet. Tawang is mainly inhabited by the Monpa people. It was ruled over by Lhomon or Monyul from 500 BC to 600 AD and later controlled by Bhutan and Tibet. The district is the home of the Monpa people. As per the 1914 Simla Accord, the McMahon Line is the new boundary between British India and Tibet. Due to this treaty, Tibet relinquished several hundred sq miles of its territory, including Tawang to the British. In 1938, British tried to take sovereignty over the area. In 1941, the Assam government tried to make strong hold on the North East Frontier Agency (NEFA) area which expended till Tawang in 1944. In 1950, Assam rifles removed the Tibetan administration from many parts and controlled them. In 1962, after the end of Indo-China war, the troops were withdrawn by China. Tawang was merged as a separate district after it was split from West Kameng district in the year 1989. The district is considered as the eighth least populous district in India. The district has been witnessed cross border conflicts results in the availability of Indian military in this area. The district is considered as the eighth least populous district in India. The district has been witnessed cross border conflicts results in the availability of Indian military in this area.
Geographically, the district has a total area of 2,172 sq. km. and occupies the rank 16th in State and 501th in India on the basis of the size. It lies at 27°58'N latitude, 91°88'E longitude and 6700 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 52.91% forest area of total geographical area. The Tawang district is bounded by Tibet in the North, West Kameng District, Arunachal Pradesh, Bhutan in the South, Bhutan in the West and West Kameng District, Arunachal Pradesh in the East. The climate of the district remains pleasant throughout the year. During the winter season there is much less rainfall in Tawang than in summer and sometimes heavy snowfall also occur in this season. The principal rivers that pass through the district are Tawang, Tawangchu and Nyamyanjchu. The actual rainfall in the district was 1587.0 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administratively, the district is divided into 1 town and 235 villages. English is its administrative language. The district came into existence in the year 1989. It has administrative headquarters located at Tawang Town which is situated at the distance of 348 kms from the State Capital. The district has total 3 sub-divisions namely Tawang, Lumla and Jang. These 3 sub-divisions are further divided into 10 administrative circles such as Tawang, Kitpi, Bongkhar, Dudunghar, Lumla, Zemithang, Jang, Mukto, Thingbu and Lhou. The district comprises 3 legislative assembly constituencies and they are Lumla, Tawang and Mukto. All of these are the part of Arunachal West Lok Sabha constituency.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district has a total number of 9,477 households with a total population of 49,977 comprising 29,151 are males and 20,826 are females which leads it to rank 13th in the state and 633 in India. The density of population of the district is 8 (persons per sq km.). The sex ratio is pegged at 714 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 986 (females per 1000 males). The schedule tribe population of the district is recorded as 34,811 including 16,770 are males and 18,041 are females. The percentage of Schedule Tribe is 3.66%. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Buddhist and Hindu with 69.87% and 23.69% of the total population. The population growth rate during the period of 2001-2011 was 28.40% including 33.44 % were males and 21.95% were females. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Bhotia with 60.86%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 1,206 out of which 629 were males and 577 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 102 out of which 66 were males and 36 were females.
Economically, the district is dependent on agriculture primarily. It is considered as one of the 19 most backward regions of Orissa and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Program. Ginger, turmeric, chilies, sugarcane, wheat, maize, millet are mainly produced in the district. The major horticultural products of the region are apple, walnut, kiwi, citrus, pineapple and banana. Natives of the district earn their extra income from the yak breeding and sheep breeding. TIn the year 2021-22 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 1,52,634 lakhs at current price and Rs. 91,020 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2021-22 was Rs. 1,37,405 lakh at current price and Rs. 79,534 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2021-22 was Rs. 2,43,354 at current price and Rs. 1,40,860 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
Education wise, according to the 2011 census, the literacy rate in the district is 59% including 67.54% are males and 46.53% are females. The total literate population in the district is 26,073 out of which 17,720 are males and 8,353 are females. The total number of illiterates in the district is 23,904 out of which 11,431 are males and 12,473 are females. ABC Study Centre Changporng, Alternate Learning Hub School, C.B.S.E. Tawang Monastery, Govt. Town Sec. School, Tawang Public School, Buri Community Centre are some of the most recognized schools in the district.
Tsewang Dhondup is politician from the Indian National Congress Party and member of Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly since 2014. Dorjee Khandu belonged to the Indian National Congress. He served as the sixth Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh and was re-elected in the year of 2009 for the second term as the chief minister. Pema Khandu was appointed as the Minister of Tourism and Water Resources in the state government in the year of 2014. He was also served as a secretary of the Arunachal Pradesh Congress Committee in 2005 and the president of the District Congress Committee in Tawang in 2010.
The district has some historical and religious places which are famous not only within the country but also in the world. These places are Tawang Monastery, War Memorial, Urgelling Gompa, Manjushree Vidyapeeth, Khinmey Gompa, Bhramadungchung Ani Gompa, Lamai Zabshe, P.T So Lake, Jong-Nga-Tser Lake, Taktsang Gompa, Btk Waterfall, Gorzam Chorten Zemithang, Jang Water Fall, Jaswant Garh, Sela Pass, Chagzam Bridge (Chag-Iron, Zam- Bridge).